Let's connect the pieces!
In a word...HOSPITAL
Part A is the part of Medicare that covers inpatient care at a hospital. It also covers skilled nursing facility, and Hospice, and Home Health Care. (But not entirely)
In a word... DOCTORS
Part B is (for the most part) outpatient care such as doctor office visits. It also includes outpatient tests (like x-ray, MRI and most bloodwork.
In a word.. DRUGS
Part D covers your prescription drugs (mostly). If you don't get it when you're first eligible you may face lifetime penalties. (Yes, there are exceptions)
This is NOT actually Medicare. When you have Part C (Medicare Advantage) you are disenrolled from Medicare and your healthcare is covered by a private insurance company with whom the government has contracted. You cannot use your Medicare card when you have Part C. There are checks and balances in place to make sure that individuals who choose Part C, get the equivalent level of care as those who stay on Medicare and coverage doesn't have to be exactly the same. Part C patients must stay within a required network of doctors (or pay higher copays if allowed to go outside of the network).
This is also NOT Medicare but the difference between Part C and Part E is that you are not taken off of Medicare when you have Part E. In fact, you will use your Medicare card with Part E because Part E covers the difference (the gap) between what Medicare pays (usually 80%) and what it doesn't (the other 20%). Other differences include the freedom to go to any US doctor that accepts Medicare, and no prior authorizations or referrals. ALL Medigap plans that have the same letter designation (e.g. Plan G) have the same exact benefits regardless of company. So, when comparing Medigap plans, consider the stability of the insurance company and price.
States in which excess charges are not allowed:
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